HODOI ELEKTRONIKAI
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DION CHRYSOSTOME, Sur la royauté (discours 1; traduction anglaise)

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Texte grec :

[1,40] βασιλεὺς μὲν κατὰ τὴν ἀρχὴν καὶ τὴν δύναμιν ὠνομασμένος, πατὴρ δὲ οἶμαι διά τε τὴν κηδεμονίαν καὶ τὸ πρᾷον, Πολιεὺς δὲ κατὰ τὸν νόμον καὶ τὸ κοινὸν ὄφελος, Ὁμόγνιος δὲ διὰ τὴν τοῦ γένους κοινωνίαν θεοῖς τε καὶ ἀνθρώποις, Φίλιος δὲ καὶ Ἑταιρεῖος, ὅτι πάντας ἀνθρώπους ξυνάγει καὶ βούλεται εἶναι ἀλλήλοις φίλους, (41) ἐχθρὸν δὲ ἢ πολέμιον μηδένα μηδενός, Ἱκέσιος δὲ ὡς ἂν ἐπήκοός τε καὶ ἵλεως τοῖς δεομένοις, Φύξιος δὲ διὰ τὴν τῶν κακῶν ἀπόφυξιν, Ξένιος δέ, ὅτι καὶ τοῦτο ἀρχὴ φιλίας, μηδὲ τῶν ξένων ἀμελεῖν μηδὲ ἀλλότριον ἡγεῖσθαι μηδένα ἀνθρώπων, Κτήσιος δὲ καὶ Ἐπικάρπιος, ἅτε τῶν καρπῶν αἴτιος καὶ δοτὴρ πλούτου καὶ κτήσεως, οὐ πενίας οὐδὲ ἀπορίας, ὡς εὐθὺς ἁπάσας ταύτας δέον ἕπεσθαι τὰς δυνάμεις τῇ τοῦ βασιλέως δυνάμει τε καὶ κλήσει. (42) καλὸν οὖν εἰπεῖν ὑπὲρ τῶν ὅλων τῆς διοικήσεως ὁποῖόν γε τὸ ξύμπαν αὐτό τε εὔδαιμον καὶ σοφὸν ἀεὶ διαπορεύεται τὸν ἄπειρον αἰῶνα συνεχῶς ἐν ἀπείροις περιόδοις μετὰ ψυχῆς τε ἀγαθῆς καὶ δαίμονος ὁμοίου καὶ προνοίας καὶ ἀρχῆς τῆς δικαιοτάτης τε καὶ ἀρίστης, ἡμᾶς τε ὁμοίους παρέχεται, κατὰ φύσιν κοινὴν τὴν αὑτοῦ καὶ τὴν ἡμετέραν ὑφ´ ἑνὶ θεσμῷ καὶ νόμῳ κεκοσμημένους καὶ τῆς αὐτῆς μετέχοντας πολιτείας. (43) ἣν ὁ μὲν τιμῶν καὶ φυλάττων καὶ μηδὲν ἐναντίον πράττων νόμιμος καὶ θεοφιλὴς καὶ κόσμιος, ὁ δὲ ταράττων ὅσον ἐφ´ ἑαυτῷ καὶ παραβαίνων καὶ ἀγνοῶν ἄνομος καὶ ἄκοσμος, ὁμοίως μὲν ἰδιώτης, ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ ἄρχων ὀνομαζόμενος· πολὺ δὲ μείζων καὶ φανερωτέρα πᾶσιν ἡ παρὰ τοῦ ἄρχοντος πλημμέλεια. (44) ὥσπερ οὖν ὅσοι στρατηγοί τε καὶ ἄρχοντες στρατοπέδων καὶ πόλεων καὶ ἐθνῶν, ὅστις ἂν τὸν σὸν μάλιστα μιμῆται τρόπον καὶ τοῖς σοῖς ἤθεσιν ὅμοιον αὑτὸν ὡς δυνατὸν φαίνηται παρέχων, οὗτος ἂν εἴη σοὶ πάντων ἑταιρότατος καὶ προσφιλέστατος· εἰ δέ τις ἐναντίος καὶ ἀνόμοιος γίγνοιτο, δικαίως ἂν τυγχάνοι μέμψεώς τε καὶ ἀτιμίας καὶ αὐτῆς γε τῆς ἀρχῆς ταχὺ παυθεὶς παραχωρήσειεν ἑτέροις ἀμείνοσί τε καὶ ἄμεινον δυναμένοις διοικεῖν·

Traduction française :

[1,40] He is addressed as " King " because of his dominion and power; as " Father," I ween, on account of his solicitude and gentleness ; as " Protector of Cities " in that he upholds the law and the commonweal; as " Guardian of the Race " on account of the tie of kinship which unites gods and men ; as " Lord of Friends and Comrades " because he brings all men together and wills that they be friendly to one another and never enemy or foe ; as " Protector of Suppliants " since he inclines his ear and is gracious to men when they pray ; as "God of Refuge " because he gives refuge from evil ; as " God of Hospitality " because it is the very beginning of friendship not to be unmindful of strangers or to regard any human being as an alien; and as " God of Wealth and Increase "since he causes all fruitage and is the giver of wealth and substance, not of poverty and want. For all these functions must at the outset be inherent in the royal function and title. (42) I might well speak next of the administration of the universe and tell how the world—the very embodiment of bliss and wisdom—ever sweeps along through infinite time in infinite cycles without cessation, guided by good fortune and a like power divine, and by foreknowledge and a governing purpose most righteous and perfect, and renders us like itself since, in consequence of the mutual kinship of ourselves and it, we are marshalled in order under one ordinance and law and partake of the same polity. He who honours and upholds this polity and does not oppose it in any way is law-abiding, devout and orderly ; he, however, who disturbs it, as far as that is possible to him, and violates it or does not know it, is lawless and disorderly, whether he be called a private citizen or a ruler, although the offense on the part of the ruler is far greater and more evident to all. Therefore, just as among generals and commanders of legions, cities or provinces, he who most closely imitates your ways and shows the greatest possible conformity with your habits would be by far your dearest comrade and friend, while he who showed antagonism or lacked conformity would justly incur censure and disgrace and, being speedily removed from his office as well, would give way to better men better qualified to govern;





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Dernière mise à jour : 22/11/2007