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DION CHRYSOSTOME, Sur la royauté (discours 1; traduction anglaise)


Texte grec :

[1,35] τί δὲ λυσιτελέστερον ἴσου καὶ δικαίου;} τίνος μὲν γὰρ ὁ βίος ἀσφαλέστερος ἢ ὃν πάντες ὁμοίως φυλάττουσιν; τίνος δὲ ἡδίων ἢ τοῦ μηδένα ἐχθρὸν ἡγουμένου; τίνος δὲ ἀλυπότερος ἢ τοῦ μηδὲν ἔχοντος αὑτὸν αἰτιάσασθαι; τίς δὲ εὐτυχέστερος ἐκείνου τοῦ ἀνδρός, ὅστις ἀγαθὸς ὢν οὐδένα λανθάνει; (36) ἐγὼ μὲν οὖν ἁπλῶς εἶπον τὰ περὶ τὸν ἀγαθὸν βασιλέα. τούτων δὲ εἴ τι φαίνεται προσήκειν σοι, μακάριος μὲν αὐτὸς τῆς εὐγνώμονος καὶ ἀγαθῆς φύσεως, μακάριοι δὲ ἡμεῖς οἱ συμμετέχοντες. (37) μετὰ δὲ τὸν νῦν εἰρημένον λόγον ἐγὼ μὲν ἐπεθύμουν διελθεῖν περὶ τοῦ μεγίστου καὶ πρώτου βασιλέως καὶ ἄρχοντος, ὃν χρὴ μιμουμένους ἀεὶ τοὺς θνητοὺς καὶ τὰ τῶν θνητῶν διέποντας ἐπιμελεῖσθαι, πρὸς ἐκεῖνον ὡς δυνατόν ἐστιν εὐθύνοντας καὶ ἀφομοιοῦντας τὸν αὑτῶν τρόπον. (38) διὰ τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ Ὅμηρος διοτρεφέας εἶναί φησι τοὺς ἀληθῶς βασιλέας καὶ Διὶ τὴν βουλὴν ὁμοίους, καὶ τὸν Μίνω, μεγίστην ἔχοντα δόξαν ἐπὶ δικαιοσύνῃ, τοῦ Διὸς ὁμιλητὴν ἔφη γενέσθαι. καὶ σχεδὸν ὅσοι πώποτε ἐν Ἕλλησιν ἢ βαρβάροις γεγόνασι βασιλεῖς οὐκ ἀνάξιοι τυγχάνειν ταύτης τῆς προσηγορίας, τοῦ θεοῦ τούτου μαθητάς τε καὶ ζηλωτὰς ὁ λόγος αὐτοὺς ἀποφαίνεται. (39) Ζεὺς γὰρ μόνος θεῶν πατὴρ καὶ βασιλεὺς ἐπονομάζεται καὶ Πολιεὺς καὶ Φίλιός τε καὶ Ἑταιρεῖος καὶ Ὁμόγνιος, πρὸς δὲ τούτοις Ἱκέσιός τε {καὶ Φύξιος} καὶ Ξένιος καὶ μυρίας ἄλλας ἐπικλήσεις {ἔχων}, πάσας ἀγαθὰς καὶ ἀγαθῶν αἰτίας·

Traduction française :

[1,35] What is more profitable than an equitable and just king? Whose life is safer than his whom all alike protect, whose is happier than his who esteems no man an enemy, and whose is freer from vexation than his who has no cause to blame himself? Who is more fortunate, too, than that man whose goodness is known of all ? (36) In plain and simple language I have described the good king. If any of his attributes seem to belong to you, happy are you in your gracious and excellent nature, and happy are we who share its blessings with you. It was my purpose, after finishing the description of the good king, to discuss next that supreme king and ruler whom mortals and those who administer the affairs of mortals must always imitate in discharging their responsibilities, directing and conforming their ways as far as possible to his pattern. Indeed, this is Homer's reason for calling true kings " Zeus-nurtured " and " like Zeus in counsel "; and Minos, who had the greatest name for righteousness, he declared was a companion of Zeus. In fact, it stands to reason that practically an the kings among Greeks or barbarians who have proved themselves not unworthy of this title have been disciples and emulators of this god. For Zeus alone of the gods has the epithets of " Father " and " King," Protector of Cities," " Lord of Friends and Comrades," " Guardian of the Race," and also " Protector of Suppliants," "God of Refuge," and " God of Hospitality," these and his countless other titles signifying goodness and the fount of goodness.

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Dernière mise à jour : 22/11/2007