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DION CHRYSOSTOME, Sur la royauté (discours 1; traduction anglaise)


Texte grec :

[1,60] ἐκεῖνος δὲ οὐ μόνον τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἦν βασιλεύς, ἀλλ´ ἀπ´ ἀνίσχοντος ἡλίου μέχρι δυομένου πάσης ἦρχε γῆς καὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἁπάντων, (61) παρ´ οἷς ἱερά ἐστιν Ἡρακλέους. ἦν δὲ καὶ πεπαιδευμένος ἁπλῶς, οὐ πολυτρόπως οὐδὲ περιττῶς σοφίσμασι καὶ πανουργήμασιν ἀνθρώπων κακοδαιμόνων. λέγουσι δὲ καὶ ταῦτα περὶ Ἡρακλέους, ὡς γυμνὸς ᾔει μόνον ἔχων λεοντῆν καὶ ῥόπαλον. (62) τοῦτο δὲ οὕτως λέγουσιν, ὅτι ἐκεῖνος οὔτε χρυσίον οὔτε ἀργύριον οὔτε ἐσθῆτα περὶ πολλοῦ ἐποιεῖτο, ἀλλὰ ταῦτα πάντα ἐνόμιζε τοῦ μηδενὸς ἄξια, πλὴν ὅσον δοῦναι καὶ χαρίσασθαι. πολλοῖς γοῦν οὐ μόνον χρήματα ἄπειρα καὶ γῆν καὶ ἀγέλας ἵππων καὶ βοῶν, ἀλλὰ βασιλείας καὶ πόλεις ὅλας ἐδωρήσατο. ἐπίστευε γὰρ αὑτοῦ πάντα εἶναι καὶ οὐδὲν ἀλλότριον, προσγίγνεσθαι δὲ τοῖς δοθεῖσι τὴν εὔνοιαν τῶν λαβόντων. (63) οὐ τοίνυν οὐδὲ ἐκεῖνο ἀληθές φασιν ὅτι δὴ περιῄει μόνος ἄνευ στρατιᾶς. οὐ γὰρ δυνατὸν πόλεις τε ἐξαιρεῖν καὶ τυράννους {ἀνθρώπους} καταλύειν καὶ πᾶσι πανταχοῦ προστάττειν χωρὶς δυνάμεως. ὅτι δὲ αὐτουργὸς ἦν καὶ τῇ ψυχῇ πρόθυμος καὶ τὸ σῶμα ἱκανὸς καὶ πάντων μάλιστα ἐπόνει, μόνον αὐτὸν ἔφασαν βαδίζειν καὶ πράττειν ἅπαντα ὅσα βούλοιτο. (64) καὶ μὴν ὅ γε πατὴρ αὐτοῦ πολλὴν ἐπιμέλειαν ἐποιεῖτο, ὁρμάς τε ἀγαθὰς ἐπιπέμπων καὶ εἰς ὁμιλίας ἀνθρώπων ἀγαθῶν ἄγων. ἐσήμαινε δὲ καὶ δι´ οἰωνῶν καὶ δι´ ἐμπύρων καὶ διὰ πάσης μαντικῆς ἕκαστα.

Traduction française :

[1,60] And he was not only king of Greece, but also held empire over every land from the rising of the sun to the setting thereof, aye, over all peoples where are found shrines of Heracles. He had a simple education too, with none of the elaboration and superfluity devised by the unscrupulous cleverness of contemptible men. " This, also, is told of Heracles : that he went unclothed and unarmed except for a lion's skin and a club, and they add that he did not set great store by gold or silver or fine raiment, but considered all such things worth nothing save to be given away and bestowed upon others. At any rate he made presents to many men, not only of money without limit and lands and herds of horses and cattle, but also of whole kingdoms and cities. For he fully believed that everything belonged to him exclusively and that gifts bestowed would call out the good-will of the recipients. Another story which men tell is untrue : that he actually went about alone without an arrny. For it is not possible to overturn cities, cast clown tyrants, and to dictate to the whole world without armed forces. It is only because, being self-reliant, zealous of soul, and competent in body, he surpassed all men in labour, that the story arose that lie travelled alone and accomplished single-handed whatsoever he desired. (64) " Moreover, his father took great pains with him, implanting in him noble impulses and bringing him into the fellowship of good men. He would also give him guidance for each and every enterprise through birds and burnt offerings and every other kind of divination.

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Dernière mise à jour : 22/11/2007