HODOI ELEKTRONIKAI
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DION CHRYSOSTOME, Nessus ou Déjanire (discours 60; traduction anglaise)

βιαζόμενος



Texte grec :

[60,0] ΝΕΣΣΟΣ Η ΔΗΙΑΝΕΙΡΑ. (1) (Interlocuteur) Ἔχεις μοι λῦσαι ταύτην τὴν ἀπορίαν, πότερον δικαίως ἐγκαλοῦσιν οἱ μὲν τῷ Ἀρχιλόχῳ, οἱ δὲ τῷ Σοφοκλεῖ περὶ τῶν κατὰ τὸν Νέσσον καὶ τὴν Δηιάνειραν ἢ οὔ; φασὶ γὰρ οἱ μὲν τὸν Ἀρχίλοχον ληρεῖν, ποιοῦντα τὴν Δηιάνειραν ἐν τῷ βιάζεσθαι ὑπὸ τοῦ Κενταύρου πρὸς τὸν Ἡρακλέα ῥαψῳδοῦσαν, ἀναμιμνῄσκουσαν τῆς τοῦ Ἀχελῴου μνηστείας καὶ τῶν τότε γενομένων· ὥστε πολλὴν σχολὴν εἶναι τῷ Νέσσῳ ὅ,τι ἐβούλετο πρᾶξαι· οἱ δὲ τὸν Σοφοκλέα πρὸ τοῦ καιροῦ πεποιηκέναι τὴν τοξείαν, διαβαινόντων αὐτῶν ἔτι τὸν ποταμόν· οὕτως γὰρ ἂν καὶ τὴν Δηιάνειραν ἀπολέσθαι, ἀφέντος τοῦ Κενταύρου. ἀλλὰ μή, καθάπερ εἴωθας, πολὺ παρὰ τὴν δόξαν λέγε καὶ πάντα μᾶλλον ἢ ὅ τις ἂν οἰηθείη. (2) (Dion) Ἆρ´ οὖν κελεύεις με ταῦτά σοι λέγειν ἅ τις ἂν οἰηθείη ὀρθῶς οἰόμενος ἢ ἅ τις ἂν καὶ μὴ ὀρθῶς; (Interlocuteur) Ἐγὼ μὲν ἃ ἄν τις ὀρθῶς οἰόμενος. (Dion) Τί οὖν ἃ οἱ πολλοὶ ἄνθρωποι δοξάζουσιν; ἆρά γε ἀνάγκη τὸν βουλόμενον ὀρθῶς ἐξηγεῖσθαι παρὰ τὴν δόξαν τῶν πολλῶν λέγειν; (Interlocuteur) Ἀνάγκη. (Dion) Μὴ οὖν δυσκόλως ἀκολουθήσῃς, ἐὰν τοιοῦτον ᾖ τὸ λεγόμενον· σκόπει δέ, εἰ μὴ δεόντως λέγεται. (Interlocuteur) Λέγε τοίνυν καὶ ἐξηγοῦ, ὅπως σοι δοκεῖ.(Dion) Οὐκοῦν λέγω {τὸ νῦν} σοι ὅτι ὅλον τὸ ἀγνόημά ἐστι περὶ τὸν μῦθον τὸ ἐπιχειρεῖν τὸν Κένταυρον συγγενέσθαι τῇ Δηιανείρᾳ. (Interlocuteur) Οὐ γὰρ ἐπεχείρησεν; (3) (Dion) Οὔ. ἢ σοὶ δοκεῖ πιθανὸν εἶναι, ἐν ὄψει Ἡρακλέους τόξα ἔχοντος καὶ πεπειραμένον αὐτοῦ τῆς ἀρετῆς πρότερον, ἡνίκα μόνος τῶν Κενταύρων αὐτὸς διέφυγε παρὰ τοῦ Φόλου μηδὲν ἐκείνων τοιοῦτον ἀδικησάντων αὐτόν, ἐπιχειρεῖν συγγενέσθαι αὐτοῦ τῇ γυναικί; (Interlocuteur) Ἔχει μέν τινα ἀπορίαν τὸ τοιοῦτο· ἀλλὰ μὴ τοῦτο κινοῦντες καθόλου τὸν μῦθον ἀναιρῶμεν. (Dion) Οὐδαμῶς, ἄνπερ λογιζώμεθα ὡς ἐγένετο καὶ εἰκὸς ἦν γενέσθαι τὸ πρᾶγμα. (Interlocuteur) Οὕτω δὴ λέγοις. (4) (Dion) Ὁ Νέσσος τὴν Δηιάνειραν εὐθὺς διακομίζων καὶ ἐν τῷ περᾶν ἐπεχείρει διαφθείρειν τοῦτον τὸν τρόπον, οὐχ ὅν φασι βιαζόμενος, ἀλλὰ λόγους ἐπιτηδείους λέγων πρὸς αὐτὴν καὶ διδάσκων ὅπως κρατήσει τοῦ Ἡρακλέους, λέγων ὅτι νῦν μὲν ἄγριός ἐστι καὶ χαλεπὸς καὶ ὀλίγον τινὰ χρόνον αὐτῇ συνέσται καὶ τοῦτον δυσκόλως διὰ τοὺς ἄθλους καὶ τὰς ἀποδημίας καὶ τὸν βίον, ὃν προῄρηται. ἐὰν δ´, ἔφη, σὺ πείσῃς αὐτὸν τὰ μὲν θεραπείᾳ, τὰ δὲ λόγοις, τῆς μὲν ταλαιπωρίας ταύτης καὶ τῶν πόνων ἐπανεῖναι, ζῆν δὲ ῥᾳθύμως καὶ ἡδέως, σοί τε πολὺ πρᾳότερος ἔσται καὶ ἄμεινον βιώσεται καί σοι τὸν λοιπὸν ἤδη συνέσται χρόνον οἴκοι μένων.

Traduction française :

[60,0] THE SIXTIETH DISCOURSE : NESSUS OR DEÏANEIRA. (1) (Interlocuteur) Can you solve me this problem — whether or not people are warranted in finding fault now with Archilochus and now with Sophocles in their treatment of the story of Nessus and Deïaneira ? For some say Archilochus makes nonsense when he represents Deïaneira as chanting a long story to Heracles while an attack upon her honour is being made by the Centaur, thereby reminding him of the love-making of Acheloüs—and of the events which took place on that occasion —in consequence of which recital Nessus would have ample time to accomplish his purpose ; others charge that Sophocles has introduced the shooting of the arrow too soon, while they were still crossing the river, for in those circumstances, they claim, Deïaneira too would have perished, since the dying Centaur would have dropped her in the river. However, do not, as you usually do, speak quite counter to the general belief and give any version rather titan what a man would naturally believe. (2) (Dion) Then do you bid me tell you those things which a man would believe who believes correctly, or what a man would believe even though not correctly ? (Interlocuteur) I prefer what one would believe who believes correctly. (Dion) Then what about beliefs which the masses hold ? Must he who desires to interpret correctly speak counter to the belief of the masses ? (Interlocuteur) He must. (Dion) Then do not be irritated as you follow the argument, if what is said is of that nature, but rather consider whether it is not suitably expressed. (Interlocuteur) Very well, speak and proceed with your exposition as seems good to you. (Dion) Very good ; I tell you that the whole misconception connected with the myth is the matter of the Centaur's attempt to violate Deïaneira. (Interlocuteur) What, did he not attempt it ? (3) (Dion) No. Or does it seem to you plausible that in full view of Heracles, who was carrying his bow, and alter having previously had experience of Heracles valour — the time when he alone of the Centaurs escaped from the cave of Pholus, though they had done no such injury as that to Heracles —Nessus should attempt to violate the hero's wife ? (Interlocuteur) Yes, there is a certain difficulty in a matter of that sort ; however, if we raise this question, perhaps we may destroy the myth altogether. (Dion) By no means, provided we consider first how the affair occurred, and how it was likely to have occurred. Inf. Very good ; I wish you would tell me. (4) (Dion) Nessus attempted to corrupt Deïaneira the moment he began to carry her across the stream, as well as in the crossing, as I shall explain—not through violence, as men say, but by speaking to her words suited to his purpose and showing how she might obtain mastery over Heracles, saying : " Now he is fierce and stern and will stay with you only a short while, and that too in fretful temper, because of his labours and his expeditions abroad and the life he has chosen. But if," said he, "you win him over, partly by solicitude for his welfare and partly by argument, urging him to give up this life of hardship and his labours and to live a life of ease and pleasure, he will not only be far kinder toward you, but will also live a better life and remain at home and keep you company from then on."





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Dernière mise à jour : 20/12/2007