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Denys d'Halicarnasse, Les Antiquités romaines, livre XV [fragments]

ὑπατευόντων



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[15,3] Ὅτι Κοίντου Σερουιλίου τὸ τρίτον {ὑπατεύοντος} καὶ Γαίου Μαρκίου Ῥουτίλου ὑπατευόντων κίνδυνοι τὴν Ῥώμην χαλεποὶ καὶ ἀπροσδόκητοι κατέσχον, οὓς εἰ μὴ θεία τις πρόνοια διεσκέδασε, δυεῖν κακῶν θάτερον ἂν αὐτῇ συνέπεσεν, ἢ δόξαν αἰσχίστην ἐνεγκεῖν ξενοκτονίας ἢ φόνων ἅψασθαι πολιτικῶν. ἀφ´ ἧς δ´ αἰτίας εἰς τούτους ἦλθε τοὺς κινδύνους, μικρὰ τῶν πρόσθεν ἀναλαβὼν δι´ ὀλίγων πειράσομαι διελθεῖν. ἐν τῷ παρελθόντι ἐνιαυτῷ τὸν Σαυνιτικὸν πόλεμον ὑπὲρ ἁπάσης Καμπανίας ἡ τῶν Ῥωμαίων πόλις ἀραμένη καὶ τρισὶ νικήσασα μάχαις τοὺς ἀντιταχθέντας ἐβούλετο μὲν ἁπάσας ἀπάγειν τὰς δυνάμεις ὡς οὐθενὸς ἔτι κινδύνου ταῖς πόλεσι καταλειπομένου· δεομένων δὲ τῶν Καμπανῶν μὴ καταλιπεῖν αὐτοὺς συμμάχων ἐρήμους ὡς ἐπιθησομένων σφίσι τῶν Σαυνιτῶν, εἰ μηδεμίαν ἔχοιεν ξενικὴν βοήθειαν, ἔγνω τὸν ἀπαλλάξαντα τοῦ πολέμου τὰς πόλεις ὕπατον Μάρκον Οὐαλέριον ὅσην ἂν αὐτοὶ βουληθῶσι τρέφειν στρατιὰν ἐν ταῖς πόλεσι καταλιπεῖν. γενόμενος δὲ τῆς ἐξουσίας ταύτης κύριος ὁ ὕπατος, ὅσοις ἦν βουλομένοις ὀψώνια καὶ μισθοὺς φέρεσθαι τῆς φυλακῆς, τούτους καθίστησιν ἐν ταῖς πόλεσιν· ἐν οἷς ἦν τὸ πλεῖον μέρος ἀνεστίων καὶ καταχρέων καὶ τὴν οἴκοι πενίαν καὶ ἀγνωσίαν ἀσμένως ἀποδιδρασκόντων. Τούτους οἱ Καμπανοὶ ταῖς οἰκίαις ἀναλαμβάνοντες τραπέζαις τε ὑπεδέχοντο λαμπραῖς καὶ ταῖς ἄλλαις ἐξένιζον φιλοφροσύναις. πολυτελὴς δὲ καὶ ἁβροδίαιτος ἱκανῶς τοῖς Καμπανίαν οἰκοῦσι καὶ νῦν ἐστι καὶ τότε ἦν ὁ βίος καὶ πάντα τὸν λοιπὸν ἔσται χρόνον, πολύκαρπόν τε πεδιάδα καὶ πολύβοτον καὶ πρὸς ὑγίειαν ἀνθρώποις γεωργοῦσιν ἀρίστην οὖσαν. κατ´ ἀρχὰς μὲν οὖν ἀγαπητῶς οἱ φρουροὶ τὴν φιλοξενίαν τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἐλάμβανον, ἔπειτα διαφθειρόμενοι τὰς ψυχὰς ὑπὸ τοῦ κόρου τῶν ἀγαθῶν πονηροὺς ὑπολογισμοὺς κατὰ μικρὸν ἐλάμβανον καὶ συνιόντες ἀλλήλοις ἔλεγον, ὡς ἀνοήτων ἀνθρώπων ποιήσουσιν ἔργον, εἰ τοσαύτην καταλιπόντες εὐδαιμονίαν ἐπὶ τὸν ἐν Ῥώμῃ βίον ἀνακάμψουσιν, ἔνθα λυπρὰ μὲν ἡ γῆ, πολλαὶ δὲ εἰσφοραί, πολέμων δὲ καὶ κακῶν ἀνάπαυσις οὐδεμία, τὰ δὲ τῶν κοινῶν πόνων ἆθλα παρ´ ὀλίγοις. οἱ δὲ ἀσθενεῖς τοῖς βίοις καὶ τῶν καθ´ ἡμέραν ἀναγκαίων ἀποροῦντες καὶ ἔτι μᾶλλον οἱ τὰ χρέα μὴ δυνάμενοι διαλῦσαι τοῖς συμβαλοῦσι καὶ τὴν ἀνάγκην ἀποχρῶσαν εἶναι σύμβουλον τῶν συμφερόντων σφίσιν ἀποφαίνοντες ἄνευ τοῦ καλοῦ, οὐδ´ εἰ πάντες νόμοι τε καὶ ἄρχοντες τὰς ἐσχάτας τιμωρίας ἀπειλοῖεν αὐτοῖς {ἐν} Καμπανοῖς ἔτι μεθήσεσθαι τῆς παρούσης εὐδαιμονίας ἔλεγον καὶ τελευτῶντες εἰς τοσαύτην ἀπόνοιαν ἦλθον, ὥστε καὶ λέγειν ἐτόλμων· Τί δὴ καὶ δράσομεν δεινόν, ἐὰν Καμπανοὺς ἐκβαλόντες τὰς ἐκείνων πόλεις κατάσχωμεν; οὗτοι γὰρ αὐτοὶ πρότερον οὐκ ἐκ τοῦ δικαίου κτησάμενοι τὴν γῆν κατέσχον, ἀλλ´ ἐπιξενωθέντες Τυρρηνοῖς τοῖς κατοικοῦσιν αὐτὴν καὶ τοὺς ἄνδρας ἅπαντας διαφθείραντες τάς τε γυναῖκας αὐτῶν καὶ τοὺς βίους καὶ τὰς πόλεις καὶ τὴν περιμάχητον χώραν παρέλαβον· ὥστε σὺν δίκῃ πείσονται πᾶν ὅ τι ἂν πάθωσιν αὐτοὶ τῆς παρανομίας κατάρξαντες καθ´ ἑτέρων. τί δὴ καὶ τὸ κωλῦσον ἡμᾶς ἔσται ταῦτα μέχρι τοῦ παντὸς χρόνου καρποῦσθαι τἀγαθά; Σαυνῖται μέν γε καὶ Σιδικῖνοι καὶ Αὔσονες καὶ πάντες οἱ περίοικοι τοσούτου δεήσουσι Καμπανοῖς τιμωροῦντες ἐφ´ ἡμᾶς γε στρατεύειν, ὥστε ἀποχρῆν ὑπολήψονταί σφισιν, εἰ τὰ ἑαυτῶν ἐάσομεν ἑκάστοις ἔχειν. Ῥωμαῖοι δὲ ἴσως μὲν καὶ κατ´ εὐχὴν δέξονται τὸ πραχθὲν ἅπασαν ἀξιοῦντες Ἰταλίαν ταῖς αὑτῶν ἀποικίαις κρατεῖσθαι· εἰ δὲ ἀγανακτεῖν προσποιούμενοι πολεμίους ἡμᾶς κρίναντες οὐ τοσαῦτα δεινὰ διαθήσουσιν, ὅσα πείσονται πρὸς ἡμῶν. χώραν τε γὰρ αὐτῶν δῃώσομεν, ὅσον ἂν ἡμῖν δοκῇ, καὶ δεσμώτας ἐκ τῶν ἀγρῶν λύσομεν καὶ θεράποντας ἐλευθερώσομεν καὶ μετὰ τῶν ἐχθίστων αὐτοῖς Οὐολούσκων τε καὶ Τυρρηνῶν καὶ Σαυνιτῶν καὶ τῶν ἔτι ἐνδοιαστῶς ἀκροωμένων Λατίνων στησόμεθα. ἠναγκασμένοις δ´ ἀνθρώποις καὶ τὸν ἔσχατον περὶ ψυχῆς τρέχουσι δρόμον οὔτ´ ἄπορον οὐδὲν οὔτ´ ἀντίπαλον. Τοιαῦτα διαλεγόμενοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὀλίγοι μὲν τὰ πρῶτα, ἔπειτα πλείους ἔγνωσαν ἐπιχειρεῖν ταῖς πόλεσι καὶ δι´ ὅρκων ἐδίδοσαν ἀλλήλοις τὸ πιστόν. ἔφθασε δὲ τὴν ἐπιχείρησιν αὐτῶν εἰς τοὐμφανὲς ἀγαγοῦσα μήνυσις, ἣν τῶν συνομοσάντων τινὲς ἐποιήσαντο πρὸς τὸν ἕτερον τῶν ὑπάτων Μάρκιον, ᾧ τὸν κατὰ Σαυνιτῶν πόλεμον ὁ κλῆρος ἀπένειμεν, ἤδη παρειληφότα τὰς ἐν τῇ Ῥώμῃ καταγραφείσας δυνάμεις καὶ ὄντα ἐν ὁδῷ. ὁ δὲ ὕπατος ἀπροσδοκήτου καὶ δεινοῦ πράγματος ἀκούσας ἔκρινε μὴ δείξειν τὸ πρᾶγμα μηδ´ εἰδέναι δοκεῖν, ἀλλὰ δι´ ἀπάτης τινὸς καὶ στρατηγίας κωλῦσαι τὰ συμβησόμενα ταῖς πόλεσιν. ἀποστείλας δή τινας ἅμα τοῖς μηνυταῖς κατασκευαστοὺς εἰς τὰς πόλεις πρὶν αὐτὸς ἐλθεῖν, προσεσκεύασε λέγεσθαι πρὸς τοὺς ἐν ταῖς παραχειμασίαις, ὅτι τὰς μὲν φρουρὰς ἔγνω καταλιπεῖν ἐν ταῖς πόλεσι τὰς τότε οὔσας, ἐπειδὴ βουλομένοις ἐστὶ τοῖς Καμπανοῖς αὐτὰς μένειν, τῇ δ´ οἴκοθεν ἀφιγμένῃ σὺν αὐτῷ δυνάμει πολεμεῖν πρὸς Σαυνίτας παρασκευάζεται, καὶ ἔπεισεν ἅπαντας ταῦτα ὑπολαβεῖν. ἀφικόμενος δὲ εἰς τὴν Καμπανίαν μετὰ τῆς στρατιᾶς ἁπάσης εἰς ἑκάστην παρῄει πόλιν καὶ τοὺς ἐν ταῖς φρουραῖς ἀνακαλούμενος διέκρινεν ἁπάντων τοὺς μετασχόντας τῆς συνωμοσίας. ἔπειτα φιλανθρώπως ἑκάστοις διαλεγόμενος οὓς μὲν ἀπέλυσε τῶν σημείων, ὡς ἂν χαριζόμενος τὴν ἄφεσιν τῆς στρατείας, οὓς δὲ τῷ πρεσβευτῇ καὶ τῷ χιλιάρχῳ παραδοὺς ὡς ἐπὶ χρείας δή τινας στρατιωτικὰς ἀπέλυσεν - οὗτοι δ´ ἦσαν οἱ πονηρότατοι καὶ οὐχ ὑπομένοντες ἀφεῖσθαι τῆς στρατείας - ἐντειλάμενος τοῖς ἄγουσιν αὐτοὺς εἰς Ῥώμην διακομίσαι καὶ φυλάττειν ἐν ἀδήλοις φυλακαῖς, χωρίσαντας ἄλλους ἀπ´ ἄλλων, ἕως ἂν αὐτὸς ἀφίκηται. τοῖς δὲ ἀνδράσιν ἐνθυμουμένοις, ὅτι πάντες οἱ κορυφαιότατοι τῆς συνωμοσίας οἱ μὲν ἀπολύονται τῶν σημείων, οἱ δ´ ἀποστέλλονται δίχα τῶν ἄλλων ὁποιδήποτε, λογισμὸς εἰσῆλθε περιφανῆ γεγονέναι σφῶν τὴν συνωμοσίαν καὶ μετὰ τοῦτο δέος, εἰ χωρὶς ἀλλήλων γένοιντο καὶ τὰ ὅπλα θεῖεν, μὴ δίκας ὑπόσχωσιν εἰς Ῥώμην ἀπαχθέντες· συνιόντες τε κατ´ ὀλίγους ἐσκόπουν, τί χρὴ πράττειν. ἔπειτα γνώμην τινῶν εἰσηγησαμένων περὶ ἀποστάσεως, ἐπαινέσαντες τὸ βούλευμα καὶ πίστεις ἀπορρήτους ἐν ἀλλήλοις ποιησάμενοι, οἱ τῆς στρατείας ἀφειμένοι περὶ Ταρρακίναν πόλιν ἐν ἐπιτηδείοις χωρίοις παρ´ αὐτὴν τὴν ὁδὸν στρατοπεδεύονται. ἔπειθ´ οἱ μετὰ τοῦ πρεσβευτοῦ καὶ τῶν χιλιάρχων ἀποστελλόμενοι τοὺς ἡγεμόνας καταλιπόντες, ἐστὶ δ´ οὓς καὶ τῶν ἀγόντων σφᾶς στρατιωτῶν πείσαντες ἀποστῆναι, περὶ τὸν αὐτὸν ἱδρύονται τόπον. ὡς δὲ ἅπαξ οὗτοι τὰς παρόδους κατελάβοντο, πολλοὶ προσῄεσαν αὐτοῖς ὁσημέραι, καὶ χεὶρ ἐγένετο περὶ αὐτοὺς καρτερά· ἔπειτα τὰ δεσμωτήρια ἁπάντων, ὅσα κατὰ τοὺς ἀγροὺς ἦν, ἐλύετο καὶ συνέρρει - - -.

Traduction française :

[15,3] When Quintus Servilius (for the third time) and Gaius Marcius Rutilus were consuls, Rome was involved in grave and unexpected dangers, from which, had they not been dispelled by some divine providence, one of two evils would have befallen her — either to have got a shameful name for murdering her (p287) hosts or to have stained her hands with civil bloodshed. How she incurred these dangers I shall attempt to recount succinctly after first recalling a few of the events which preceded. 2 In the previous year Rome, after undertaking the Samnite war in behalf of all Campania and conquering her opponents in three battles, had wished to bring all her forces home, feeling that no further danger remained for the cities there. But when the Campanians besought the Romans not to desert them and leave them bereft of allies, declaring that the Samnites would attack them if they had no assistance from outside, it was decreed that the consul Marcus Valerius, who had freed their cities from war, should leave as large an army in those cities as they wished to support. 3 Having been given this authority, the consul placed in the justice all who wished to draw rations and be paid for garrison duty; the greater part of these consisted of homeless men burdened with debt, who were glad to escape poverty and the obscure life at home. 4 The Campanians, taking these men into their homes, welcomed them with lavish tables and entertained them with all the other marks of hospitality. For the manner of life of the Campanians is extravagant and luxurious enough now, and was then, and will be for all time to come, since they dwell in a plain that is rich in both crops and flocks and is most salubrious for men who till the soil. 5 At first, accordingly, the garrison gladly accepted the hospitality of these people; then, as their souls grew corrupted by the surfeit of good things, they (p289) gradually gave way to base considerations, and remarked when meeting that they would be playing the part of witless men if they left such great good fortune behind and returned to their life at Rome, where the land was wretched and there were numerous war taxes, where there was no respite from wars and evils, and the rewards for the hardships suffered by all in common were at the disposition of a few. 6 Those who had but an insecure livelihood and lacked daily subsistence, and even more those who were unable to discharge their debts to their creditors and declared that their necessity was a sufficient counsellor to advise them of their interests regardless of the honourable course, said that even if all the laws and magistrates should threaten them with the direst penalties, they would no longer relinquish to the Campanians their present good fortune; and finally they came to such a state of madness that they dared to talk in this fashion: 7 "What terrible crime, indeed, shall we be committing if we expel the Campanians and occupy their cities? For these men themselves did not acquire the land in a just manner what they occupied it aforetime, but after enjoying the hospitality of the Tyrrhenians who inhabited it, they slew all the men and took over their wives, their homes, their cities, and their land that was so well worth fighting for; so that with justice they will suffer whatever they may suffer, having themselves begun the lawless treatment of others. 8 What, then, will there be to prevent our enjoying these blessings for all time to (p291) come? At any rate, the Samnites, the Sidicini, the Ausonians and all the neighbouring peoples, far from marching against us to avenge the Campanians, will believe that it is enough for them if we allow each of them to retain their own possessions. 9 And the Romans perhaps will accept our action as truly an answer to prayer, ambitious as they are to rule all Italy by their own colonies; but if they pretend to be aggrieved and adjudge us enemies, they will not do us as much harm as they will suffer harm at our hands. For we will ravage their territory as much as we please, turn loose the prisoners on the country estates, free the slaves, and take our stand with their bitterest enemies, the Volscians, Tyrrhenians and Samnites, as well as with the Latins who are still wavering in their loyalty. To men driven by stern necessity and running the supreme race for their lives nothing is either impossible or able to withstand them." 10 As they argued in this manner with one another, at first a few, and then a larger number decided to attack the cities, and they pledged their good faith to one another by means of oaths. But their attempt was forestalled, being brought to light by information which some of the conspirators laid before Marcius, one of the consuls, who had been designated by lot to conduct the war against the Samnites, and having already taken over the forces that had been enrolled in Rome, was on his way. The consul, upon (p293) hearing of this unexpected and dangerous matter, decided neither to mention it not to appear to be aware of it, but by some deception and ruse to prevent the fulfilment of the threat to the cities. 11 Accordingly, he sent into the cities some men duly instructed for the purpose along with the informers, ahead of his own arrival, and caused the report to be spread among the men in winter quarters that he had decided to leave the present garrisons in the cities, inasmuch as the Campanians desired to have them remain, while he himself was preparing to make war against the Samnites with the forces which had come with him from Rome; and he persuaded them all to believe this. 12 But upon arriving in Campania with his whole army, he went round to each city, and summoning the men in the garrisons, picked out from among them all those who had taken part in the conspiracy. Then, addressing each group in friendly fashion, he dismissed some from the standards, as if granting discharge from the service as a favour, and others he dismissed, handing them over to the legate and the tribune as if for some special military duties. These latter were the most evil-minded and would not consent to be discharged from the service; and he gave orders to those who were escorting them to take them to Rome, and separating the groups from one another, to keep them in secret custody until he himself should come. (p295) 13 But the conspirators, reflecting that all their ring-leaders were being either discharged from the standards or else sent to some destination or other apart from the rest, came to the conclusion that their conspiracy had been revealed, and then they became afraid that, if they should become separated and lay down their arms, they would have to pay the penalty when they were brought back to Rome; and meeting together in small groups, they considered what they ought to do. 14 Then, when some proposed a revolt, they approved the plan and gave secret pledges among themselves, after which those who had been discharged from the service made camp near the city of Tarracina in convenient spots right beside the road. 15 Later, the men who were being sent with the legate and the tribunes, deserting their leaders and in some instances even persuading the soldiers who were escorting them to revolt, settled down in the same region. When these had once seized the by-roads, many others joined them daily, and a strong force was gathered about them. Then all the prisons that were in the country districts were opened by them and there flocked together - - -.





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