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Denys d'Halicarnasse, Les Antiquités romaines, livre VI

κακῷ



Texte grec :

[6,47] Τοῖς δὲ πατρικίοις ἐν μὲν τῷ παραυτίκα ταραχὴ ἐνέπεσε πολλὴ καὶ ἔκπληξις, καὶ ὡς αὐτίκα δὴ μάλα τῶν ἀποστατῶν ἅμα τοῖς ἀλλοεθνέσι πολεμίοις ἐπὶ τὴν πόλιν ἡξόντων δέος. ἔπειθ´ ὡς ἐξ ἑνὸς παρακελεύσματος ἁρπάσαντες τὰ ὅπλα σὺν τοῖς οἰκείοις ἕκαστοι πελάταις, οἱ μὲν ἐπὶ τὰς ὁδοὺς ἃς ἥξειν ἐνόμιζον τοὺς πολεμίους παρεβοήθουν, οἱ δ´ ἐπὶ τὰ φρούρια φυλακῆς ἕνεκα τῶν ἐρυμάτων ἐξῄεσαν, οἱ δ´ ἐν τοῖς προκειμένοις τῆς πόλεως πεδίοις ἐστρατοπεδεύοντο· ὅσοι δὲ διὰ γῆρας ἀδύνατοι τούτων τι δρᾶν ἦσαν ἐπὶ τοῖς τείχεσιν ἐτάξαντο. ἐπεὶ δὲ τοὺς ἀποστάτας κατέμαθον οὔτε τοῖς πολεμίοις προστιθεμένους οὔτε τὴν χώραν δῃοῦντας οὔτε ἄλλο βλάπτοντας οὐδὲν ὅ τι καὶ λόγου ἄξιον, τοῦ δέους ἐπαύσαντο· καὶ μεταθέμενοι τὰς γνώμας, ἐφ´ οἷστε διαλλαγήσονται πρὸς αὐτούς, ἐσκόπουν· καὶ ἐλέχθησαν ὑπὸ τῶν ἡγουμένων τοῦ συνεδρίου λόγοι παντοδαποὶ καὶ πλεῖστον ἀλλήλων διάφοροι, μετριώτατοι δὲ καὶ πρεπωδέστατοι ταῖς παρούσαις τύχαις, οὓς οἱ πρεσβύτατοι αὐτῶν ἔλεξαν διδάσκοντες, ὡς οὐδεμᾷ κακίᾳ πεποίηται τὴν ἀπόστασιν ἀπ´ αὐτῶν ὁ δῆμος, ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ἀναγκαίων συμφορῶν βιασθείς, τὰ δ´ ὑπὸ τῶν συμβούλων ἐξηπατημένος, ὀργῇ δὲ μᾶλλον ἢ λογισμῷ τὰ συμφέροντα κρίνων, οἷα ἐν ἀμαθεῖ πλήθει γίγνεσθαι φιλεῖ· ἔπειθ´ ὅτι συνοίδασιν αὑτοῖς κακῶς βεβουλευμένοις οἱ πλείους καὶ ζητοῦσιν ἀναλύσασθαι τὰς ἁμαρτίας εὐσχήμονας ἀφορμὰς λαμβάνοντες· τὰ γοῦν ἔργα δρῶσιν ἤδη μετεγνωκότων, καὶ εἰ λάβοιεν ἐλπίδα χρηστὴν περὶ τοῦ μέλλοντος χρόνου, ψηφισαμένης αὐτοῖς ἄδειαν τῆς βουλῆς καὶ διαλλαγὰς ποιησαμένης εὐπρεπεῖς, ἀγαπητῶς τὰ σφέτερα δέξονται. ἠξίουν τε ταῦτα παραινοῦντες μὴ χείρους ὀργὴν εἶναι τῶν κακιόνων τοὺς κρείττονας, μηδ´ εἰς ἐκεῖνον ἀναβάλλεσθαι τὸν χρόνον τὰς διαλλαγάς, ὅτε ἢ νοῦν ἔχειν ἀναγκασθήσεται τὸ ἀνόητον, ἢ τῷ μείζονι κακῷ τοὔλαττον ἰᾶσθαι ὅπλων παραδόσει καὶ σωμάτων ἐπιτροπῇ τὴν ἐλευθερίαν ἀφαιρεθὲν αὐτὸ ὑφ´ ἑαυτοῦ· ταῦτα γὰρ ἐγγὺς εἶναι τοῦ ἀδυνάτου· μετρίως δὲ χρησαμένους ἀρχηγοὺς τῶν συμφερόντων βουλευμάτων γενέσθαι καὶ προτέρους ἐκείνων ἐπὶ τὰς διαλλαγὰς χωρεῖν ἐνθυμουμένους, ὅτι τὸ μὲν ἄρχειν καὶ ἐπιτροπεύειν τοῖς πατρικίοις ὑπάρχει, φιλότητος δὲ καὶ εἰρήνης - - - τοῖς ἀγαθοῖς. τὸ δ´ ἀξίωμα τῆς βουλῆς οὐκ ἐν τῷδε μάλιστα ἐλαττώσεσθαι ἀπέφαινον, ἐν ᾧ μάλιστα τὰς ἀναγκαίας συμφορὰς γενναίως φέροντες ἀσφαλῶς πολιτεύσουσιν, ἀλλ´ ἐν ᾧ δυσοργήτως ταῖς τύχαις ὁμιλοῦντες ἀνατρέψουσι τὸ κοινόν. ἀνοίας δ´ ἔργον εἶναι τῆς εὐπρεπείας ὀρεγομένους τῆς ἀσφαλείας ὑπερορᾶν· ἀγαπητὸν μὲν γὰρ ἀμφοῖν τυγχάνειν, εἰ δ´ ἐξείργοιτό τις θατέρου, τὰ σωτήρια τῶν εὐπρεπεστέρων νομιστέα ἀναγκαιότερα. τέλος δ´ ἦν τῶν ταῦτα παραινούντων, πρέσβεις ἀποστέλλειν τοὺς διαλεξομένους τοῖς ἀφεστηκόσι περὶ φιλίας, ὡς οὐδὲν αὐτοῖς ἡμάρτηται ἀνήκεστον.

Traduction française :

[6,47] At first great confusion and consternation fell upon the patricians, who feared that the seceders would at once come against the city together with the foreign enemies. Then, as if at a single signal, snatching up arms and attended each by his own clients, some went to defend the roads by which they expected the enemy would approach, others marched out to the fortresses in order to secure them, while still others encamped on the plains before the city; (p377) and those who by reason of age were unable to anything of the kind took their places upon the walls. But when they heard that the seceders were neither joining the enemy, laying waste the country, nor doing any other mischief worth speaking of, they gave up their fear, and changing their minds, proceeded to consider upon what terms they might come to an agreement with them. And speeches of every kind, directly opposed to one another, were made by the leading men of the se; but the most moderate speeches and those most suitable to the existing situation were delivered by the oldest senators, who showed that the people had not made this secession from them with any malicious intent, but partly compelled by irresistible calamities and partly deluded by their advises, and judging of their interest by passion rather than reason, as is wont to happen with an ignorant populace; and furthermore, that the greater part of them were conscious of having been ill advised and were seeking an opportunity of redeeming their offences if they could find plausible excuses for doing so. At any rate their actions were those of men who had already repented, and if they should be given good hope for the future by a vote of the senate granting them impunity and offering an honourable accommodation, they would cheerfully take back what was their own. In urging this course they demanded that men of superior worth should not be more implacable than their inferiors, nor defer an accommodation till the senseless crowd should be either brought to their (p379) senses by necessity or induced by it to cure a smaller evil by a greater, in depriving themselves of liberty as the result of delivering up their arms and surrendering their persons at discretion; for these things were next to impossible. But by treating the people with moderation they ought to set the example of salutary counsels, and to anticipate the others in proposing an accommodation, bearing in mind that while governing and administering the state was the duty of the patricians, the promoting of friendship and peace was the part of good men. They declared that the prestige of the senate would be most diminished, not by a policy of administering the government safely while bearing nobly the calamities that were unavoidable, but by a policy whereby, in showing resentment toward the vicissitudes of fortune, they would overthrow the commonwealth. It was the part of folly, while aiming at appearances, to neglect security; it was desirable of course, to obtain both, but if one must do without either, safety ought to be regarded as more necessary than appearances. The final proposal of those who gave these advice was that ambassadors should be sent to the seceders to treat of peace, since they had been guilty of no irreparable mischief.





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Dernière mise à jour : 9/01/2007